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29Dec
2015
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Recent research on nanotechnology applications by different universities

Posted by :smitholivia335


Nanotechnology is fast evolving science, which is creating effective tools and applications for different industry sector. For example, nanotechnology in medicine, energy applications, daily uses, agriculture, and many more such industries are being benefited from different nanotechnology applications. The science of tiny particles is useful in making durable small devices that can solve space crunch also it helps in increasing efficiency. A number of universities are working in different projects to innovate new devices of applications to help the humankind. Following are the latest research studies carried on by universities in different parts of the world.

 

University of Texas, Arlington- blood sugar level monitor with nano device

 

The University of Texas is making a life-transforming device that can help track blood sugar level without any blood test. Blood sugar is dangerous illness, which needs regular checkups to track ups and down in the sugar level. A patient has to go through needle insertion or prick a needle to measure sugar counts on daily basis. Kyungsuk Yum, an assistant professor in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Arlington is developing an injectable; close infrared optical biosensor nanotube that would read a man's blood glucose always and an optical glucose scanner that can get to the information gathered by nanotube. "Continuous blood glucose monitoring is essential in every diabetic's life. This device could unlock continuous information vital to a diabetic's quality of life," said Yum.

How does it work?

 

The modern nanotechnology application to monitor sugar levels requires the biosensor to be injected inside the human body to start monitoring. The drawback of this device is that it reads glucose levels on the tissue which is not accurate for determining sugar levels, moreover it needs to be marked and measured several times in a day and the life span of a device is six to seven days which means its need to be changed after its lifespan is over.

 

University of California- data transfer with the help of light

 

Engineers have successfully coagulated electrons and photon within a single tiny chip, which is a step forward towards discovering a fast and secure data transferring technology. With the help of nanotechnology, researchers were able to load two core processors with more 70 million transistors along with 850 photonic components into a chip whose diameter is 3-by-6 millimeter. The microprocessor will be able to produce several super-efficient computer chips, which is first of its kind. The super nanotechnology marks the beginning of fiber optic communication.

 

"This is a milestone. It's the first processor that can use light to communicate with the external world," said Vladimir Stojanović, who is leading the project of developing the chip. He is an associate professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California, Berkeley.

 

What is the advantage of the processor that uses light for communications?

 

Fiber optics can support more bandwidth compared to the normal electric wires. Not only that, they can transfer data at great speed to greater distances using minimal energy. The technology of optical fiber communication has improved data transfer technology in a great way, however, there are some limitations in this technology, and for example, fitting photonics inside a computer chip is lot more difficult. The researchers said the chip could support a bandwidth of 300 gb/sec per square millimeter, which is 10-15 times greater than the electrical chip currently available in the market.

 

The photonic chip is not only fast but great in saving energy as well. It uses only 1.3 picojoules, which equals to about 1.3 watts of power to transfer a data of one terabit per second. "The advantage with optical is that with the same amount of power, you can go a few centimeters, a few meters or a few kilometers," said study co-lead author Chen Sun.

 

University College London- sensor to detect explosives

 

The University College of London is on its way of making a sensor using nanotechnology applications, which can detect various kinds of explosives. They named it the proof-of-concept sensor, which can detect the common explosives used nowadays, the sensor is said to improve safety at public places by tracking the toxic contamination in water.

 

"This is the first time multiple explosives have been detected using a single sensor before, demonstrating proof-of-concept for this approach. Our sensor changes colour within 10 seconds to give information about how much and what explosives are present in a sample. Following further development, we hope it will be used to quickly analyse the nature of threats and inform tailored responses," said Dr William Peveler, who is leading the research at University College London.

 

How does it work?

 

The researchers have built a fluorescent sensor, which changes colour to help understand the difference between TNT, DNT, RDX, tetryl, and PETN. It indicates different colour for different compounds. The sensor comprise of quantam dots or light emitting nanomaterial. Explosive targeting receptors are attached to the nanomaterials. As every explosive ties to the quantum speck, it extinguishes the light being radiated to an alternate degree. The definite changes in shading are dissected computationally in different conditions to give an exceptional unique mark for every compound, permitting various explosives to be distinguished with a single test.

 

"We analysed explosives which are commonly used for industrial and military purposes to create a useful tool for environmental and security monitoring. For example, DNT is a breakdown product from landmines, and RDX and PETN have been used in terror plots in recent years as they can be hard to detect using sniffer dogs. Our test can quickly identify these compounds so we see it having a variety of applications from monitoring the waste water of munitions factories and military ranges to finding evidence of illicit activities,” added Dr. Peveler.

Tag(s) : nanoscience, nanotechnology, nano medicine, nanotechnology research, nanotechnology study,    


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